Fatigue testing of carbon steels and lowalloy steels. There are over 150 different grades of stainless steel, which are used in making bridges, kitchen utensils, automotive bodies, aircraft, etc. In some instances type 304 can be used in the aswelded condition. Most cracks were parallel to the weld in the bottom portion of the vessel. It refers to the fatigue fracture of a metal aggravated by a corrosive environment or stress corrosion cracking scc of a metal aggravated by cyclic stress.
A substantial amount of experimental data has been developed on steel beams since 1967 from a study sponsored. Fatigue crack growth in austenitic stainless steel. Quantitative prediction of environmentally assisted cracking. A load of insufficient magnitude to cause failure in a single application may lead to failure if it is removed and reapplied repeatedly. Fatigue cracking in a stainless steel welded exhaust hose. The cyclic fatigue tests were conducted on compact tension ct specimens to establish the relationship between crack growth and the number of cycles a n vibrations resistance. The interaction of corrosion fatigue and stresscorrosion. Caustic stress corrosion cracking inspectioneering. Mechanical and thermal experiments were performed, simulated also by fem. Fatigue and fracture of austenitic stainless steels.
Fatigue is the main source of almost half of whole mechanical failures. The role of corrosion pit in the corrosion fatigue crack initiation process of martensitic, ferritic, austenitic, duplex and precipitationhardening stainless steels is. Fatiguecrack propagation behavior of type 304 stainless steel at. The other end of the tube was attached to a flexible metal hose, which provided no support and offered no resistance to vibration. In a study done by li and laird 1994, the fatigue response of single crystal of 316l stainless steel fatigued at room temperature was analyzed. Pdf stress corrosion cracking scc and corrosion fatigue. In this study, the cyclic crack growth behavior of biaxially loaded cruciform specimens is investigated and compared with an uniaxially loaded. It also demonstrates good fatigue strength, as well as outstanding resistance to stress corrosion cracking, crevice, pitting, erosion, and general corrosion in severe environments. Forged type 316ng austenitic stainless steel is commonly used to fabricate primary coolant pipe in advanced pressurized water reactor systems, but it is subject to corrosion fatigue cracking in primary coolant environments.
Metals, metalworking and machinery base metals technology application thermal properties fatigue materials fatigue testing machines fundiciones metalicas no ferricas investigacion cientifica piezas automotrices welding. Fatigue crack growth fcg behavior of a duplex stainless steel dss in 3. The mechanism and estimation of fatigue crack initiation in. Visual examination showed that cracks followed a path along the seam weld in the bellows. Fatigue cracking of a 316l stainless steel nozzle sleeve from a chemical processing vessel. Therefore, knowl edge of the fatiguecrack propagation behavior of the austenitic stainless steels in this temperature range will be of value in the design and.
Highnickel alloys abrass aluminum alloys titanium alloys magnesium alloys zirconium alloys environment hot nitrate, hydroxide, and. In this study, the fatigue crack growth of type 316ng austenitic stainless steel in 325c water was investigated. Cracks initiated at intergranular corrosion penetrations propagating by corrosion assisted fatigue. Forensic failure analysis, corrosion investigation, metallurgical testing and engineering located in mooresville, nc. Fatigue crack behavior of stainless steel 304 by the. This research investigated the effect on cyclic fatigue behavior of stainless steel 304 ss304 when including carbon nanotubes cnts at the crack tip. Cracking of stainless steel nozzle sleeve metallurgical. Evaluation of stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics for martensitic stainless steel. Stainless steel develops maximum resistance to staining and pitting with the addition of molybdenum. The atmospheric corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steel is unequalled by virtually all other uncoated engineering materials. Thermal fatigue resistance of welded joints in stainless steel high temperature exhaust applications. A large portion of the stainless steel group consists of austenitic stainless steels. Corrosion fatigue crack initiation behavior of stainless.
Sections were cut out of the vessel containing these cracks and examined using the metallograph, scanning electron microscope, and microprobe to determine the cause of cracking. Materials that are notch sensitive are more prone to fatigue failure, so that as a general rule ferritic and martensitic types cannot be expected to be as fatigue resistant as the austenitic stainless steels. Fatigue cracking of a stainless steel elbow assembly at a. It has been estimated that 8090% of fastener breaks were caused by, or were related to, fatigue. It is difficult to control the temperature, while changing pipe material or eliminating residual stresses associated with welding and forming the pipework is costly and. Increases in the number of trucks and allowable weights has led to a rapid accu. Lean duple stainless steel product description ak steel nitronic 19d stainless steel is a lean duplex stainless steel with a mixed ferrite and austenite structure. Fatigue failures in fasteners are one of the most common problems that applications experience.
Carbon steel and ferritic stainless steels, with little to no nickel, do not experience cl scc, nor do high nickel alloys those with ni over 30% are much less prone to cracking. Chloride stress corrosion cracking clscc is one the most common reasons why austenitic stainless steel pipework and vessels deteriorate in the chemical processing and petrochemical industries. Hot cracking susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels. The interaction of corrosion fatigue and stresscorrosion cracking in. Fatigue behavior of austenitic type 316l stainless steel. Corrosion and mechanics of materials section investigates aging degradation of light water reactor lwr structures. Many older steel girder bridges are affected by the distortioninduced fatigue cracking. Stainless steel, thermal shock, thermal fatigue, fatigue crack, thermal cycle.
The existing fatigue en data have been evaluated to establish the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters such as steel type, strain range, strain rate. Fatigue limit, endurance limit, and fatigue strength are used to describe the amplitude or range of cyclic stress that can be applied to the material without causing fatigue failure. The cyclic fatigue tests were conducted on compact tension ct specimens to establish the relationship between crack growth and the number of cycles a n fatigue cracking cfc is the failure mode normally found in various metals and alloys under cyclic load in various environments 1. Effect of cte on fatigue cracking of stainless steel vessels. This article will provide an understanding of what fatigue is, what fatigue fractures in fasteners look like, why fasteners fail in fatigue, and ways to. Fracture mechanicsbased testing was used to quantify the stresscorrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue behavior of a precipitationhardened martensitic stainless steel custom 465h950 in. Fatigue properties and endurance limits of stainless. Fatigue corrosion is corrosion caused by fatigue of materials. Fatigue resistance is dependent on surface finish, smoother unnotched designs and surfaces are helpful. Pdf corrosion fatigue crack initiation behavior of stainless steels. This research investigated the effect on cyclic fatigue behavior of stainless steel 304 ss304 when including carbon nanotubes cnts at the. Thermal fatigue resistance of welded joints in stainless. Detection of fatigue cracking in steel bridge girders. Chloride stress corrosion cracking in austenitic stainless steel.
This alloy provides high yield strength, good drawing and welding characteristics, excellent chloride stress corrosion cracking resistance, and high cyclic oxidation resistance. Caustic stress corrosion cracking, also referred to as caustic embrittlement, is a form of degradation that is caused when a component operates in a caustic environment it is one of the most prevalent afflictions in the industry and one of many environmental cracking mechanisms that typically occur in carbon steel equipment, but it can also afflict low alloy and austenitic stainless steel. The fatigue performance of stainless steel 316l has been investigated. Duplex stainless steels, because of the ferrite in their microstructure see next figure, can be equally resistant.
Thermal fatigue cracking is the cracking that happens after a metal is repeatedly heated and cooled rapidly. Most of the cracks followed a multidirectionalcircular pattern, occasionally chipping off the convolutions, an indication of highresonance fatiguetype cracking. Failure of the bellows occurred first as a fatigue crack at the weld joining the lower end of the bellows to the pipe. This means that there is a stress level, below which fatigue failure should not. Fatigue crack behavior of stainless steel 304 by the addition of.
In unwelded metals and alloys the failure process consists of initiation of microscopic cracking. The sensor operates by harvesting the energy from the host structure. The time dependent deformation due to heavy load over time is known as creep in general both stress and temperature influence on the rate of creep. Interim fatigue design curves that address environmental effects on fatigue life of carbon and lowalloy steels and austenitic sss were first proposed by majumdar et al.
Recommended method for repairing fatigue cracking twi. Materials that are notch sensitive are more prone to fatigue failure, so that as a general rule ferritic and martensitic types cannot be expected. Sep 18, 2017 fracture mechanicsbased testing was used to quantify the stresscorrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue behavior of a precipitationhardened martensitic stainless steel custom 465h950 in full. Forensic failure analysis, corrosion investigation, metallurgical testing and engineering. Influence of temperature on fatigue life of types 304 and 316 stainless steel in. Deterioration by clscc can lead to failures that have the potential to release stored energy andor hazardous substances. It can lead to unexpected sudden failure of normally ductile metal alloys subjected to a tensile stress, especially at elevated temperature. Figure 1 shows the cracking that occurred on a 6mo super austenitic stainless steel n08367 exposed to 0. For example, chloride stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel has been experienced in hotwater jacketed pipes carrying molten chocolate in the food industry. Fatigue crack initiation, fatigue life, light water reactor, austenitic stainless steel, strain amplitude, strain rate, microstructurally small crack, dissolved.
It is the most widely used duplex stainless steel grade and is characterized by high yield strength, double that of the standard austenitic stainless steel grades. Visual examination of lithium hydride reactor vessels revealed cracks that were adjacent to welds. Fatigue properties and endurance limits of stainless steels. Due to its application for daily use, life prediction of 316l steel is one element of the complex and crucial in designing a component into tubular or cylinder shape working in various of alternative loading. Menzemer a number of localized failures have developed in welded steel bridge components because of fatigue crack propagation, which in some instances has led to brittle fracture. Modern highstrength stainless steels offer combined mechanical and corrosion resistance, but are susceptible to environmental cracking in. Adding nickel creates austenitic stainless steels, identified by their 300series designation and used in marine applications. The cyclic fatigue tests were conducted on compact tension ct specimens to establish the relationship between crack growth and the number of cycles a n. Stainless steel finds use in all the places where the presence of moisture or water prevents carbon steel from being used. Scc is highly chemically specific in that certain alloys are likely to undergo scc only when exposed to a small number of chemical environments. A fatigue crack initiation and propagation in a321 stainless steel was analyzed. On the fatigue crack growth behavior in 316l stainless steel. Thermal fatigue crack growth in stainless steel sciencedirect. Fatigue limit, endurance limit, and fatigue strength are used to describe the amplitude or range of cyclic stress that can be applied to the material without causing fatigue failure creep.
A welded elbow assembly aisi type 321 stainless steel, with components joined with er347 stainless steel filler metal by gas tungsten arc welding was part of a hydraulicpump pressure line for a jet aircraft. Heat resistant alloys all have high coefficients of thermal expansion. In this study, an svmbased procedure has been proposed for the detection of fatigue cracking in steel girders based on the data of the sws. The fatigue cracking of coverplated steel beam bridges of the aasho road test in the early 60s led to further examinations of the controlling factors and more extensive studies. Stainless steels exhibit a fatigue limit or endurance limit during cyclic stressing. Nihon kikai gakkai ronbunshu, a hentransactions of the japan society of mechanical engineers, part a. It is a special case of stress corrosion cracking in that it combines a corrosion process and applied stress on the materials.
For this reason, it is common practice to use the s316 molybdenumbearing grade in areas where the s. Fatigue strength of steel members with welded details. Highnickel alloys abrass aluminum alloys titanium alloys magnesium alloys zirconium alloys environment hot nitrate, hydroxide, and carbonatebicarbonate solutions. The mechanism and estimation of fatigue crack initiation. Types 302 and 304 stainless are widely used for rigging, fasteners, fittings and propeller shafts. These alloys have a facecentered cubic fcc structure. Based on existing fatigue sn data, interim fatigue design curves that address environmental effects on fatigue life of austenitic stainless steels sss have been. The typical crack morphology for chloride stress corrosion cracking consists of branched transgranular cracks.
Stress corrosion cracking scc is the growth of crack formation in a corrosive environment. In existing plant components the risk of thermal fatigue cracking should be assessed and conditions necessary for the prevention of this degradation process should be clarified. The slope is somewhat different than the original code curve b2. Fatigue crack behavior of stainless steel 304 by the addition. Where fatigue cracking initiates in plain material remote from any welds, a welded repair may be practical, but it will certainly have a much reduced fatigue life unless particular attention is paid to improvement of the fatigue strength andor cyclic stress at the original crack initiation site. Mechanism of fatigue crack initiation in austenitic stainless steels. Thorough microstructural analyses were carried out using electronoptical techniques and. The lower carbon content minimizes chromium carbide precipitation due to welding and its susceptibility to intergranular corrosion. Jun, 2019 stainless steel alloys are grouped according to the structure of their crystals. Evaluation of stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue. Although austenitic stainless steel is resistant to uniform corrosion, it is sensitive to localized corrosion. Corrosion fatigue cracking of aisi 316l stainless steel.748 903 1528 623 830 639 1457 287 268 800 251 1040 1508 1208 237 208 772 1300 397 854 1368 108 626 1690 1161 50 366 217 1432 783 611 1145 1443 1231 417 1303 1067 1353 457 101 314 852 1348 1118